Project examples - Engineering

Vincent Software Tool

Expertise in Simulation Concomitant to Development in Additive Manufacturing

© Photo Fraunhofer IFF

The software tool VINCENT for planning motion and simulating robots in additive manufacturing of large parts is being developed in an ongoing project

VINCENT visualizes processes and verifies the accessibility of every path for additive manufacturing of parts, detects collisions, and thus optimizes the workspace and paths of motion

The tool also performs a complete and verifiable range of motion analysis during additive manufacturing (generation of a safety zone for every component)

Simulation concomitant to system development shortens development and commissioning times by testing geometry and function before manufacturing commences

The tool’s function is being tested, upgraded and optimized in the project HP3D

Publication:

Klaeger, U.: Hybrid Manufacturing of Large Parts with Industrial Robots. In Proceedings of the 7th International Conference of Polymers & Moulds Innovations Ghent, 21-23 September 2016, pp. 28-33. ISBN 978-9081313605.

Contact:

Dr. Andriy Telesh, andriy.telesh@iff.fraunhofer.de, +49 391 4090 230

Additive manufacturing of lightweight structures in turbine components

Product development

© Photo Fraunhofer IPK

Setup of an additive process chain consisting of selective laser melting (SLM) and laser metal deposition (LMD)

SLM is used for the build-up of highly complex structures

LMD produces the more coarse structures with a high build-up rate

At IPK we investigate the interactions between the two technologies

The combination of the technologies is especially relevant for small batches which benefit from the high build rate

Projects:

„KombiPro – Combined additive production with powder bed and powder nozzle”

„SimuGen – Simulation and additive manufacturing of lightweight structures in turbine components“

Publication: 

Graf, B. et al.: „Additive process chain using selective laser melting and laser metal deposition” International Conference on Lasers in Manufacturing, LIM 2015

Link: 

http://publica.fraunhofer.de/dokumente/N-362570.html

Contact:

Benjamin Graf, benjamin.graf@ipk.fraunhofer.de

Miniature Heat Exchanger

© Photo Fraunhofer IWU

This counterflow water/water miniature heat exchanger was designed for and manufactured by Laser Beam Melting in order to demonstrate achievable efficiency compared to conventional plate heat exchangers

The inlets with a diameter of  6mm fan out into 10 channels of 2 mm in diameter and a total length of 400 mm.

Each channel is meandering with 7 directional changes of 180°, having a distance of only 1.5 mm to each other. This leads to a very compact design while maximising the surface area

Technical Details:

AM-Technology used: Laser Beam Melting (LBM)

Material: AlSi10Mg

Dimensions: 60 x 60 x 60 mm³

Weight: 0.5 kg

Heat Transfer Surface Area: 505 cm²

Heat Transfer Performance: 2kW (at 50°C / 26° C and
2.1l / min)

Project:  

Concept Study / Demonstrator

Contact:  

Mathias Gebauer, mathias.gebauer@iwu.fraunhofer.de, +49 351 4772 2151

Bionic Manufacturing

© Photo Fraunhofer IWM

In the completed project »Bionic manufacturing« (01RB0906A) scientists from Fraunhofer IWM developed software that creates lightweight constructions by microstructuring bulk designs.

The conformity of the microstructure allows a beforehand calculation of mechanical properties like strength and stiffness.

To optimize the efficiency of the design, the microstructure can be adapted to a given load situation.

This adaptation happens by a local increase of selected struts.

The resulting cellular structure can be manufactured by different additive manufacturing processes.

The cantilever chair »Cellular Loop« was developed and manufactured as  a demonstrator. 

Project:

Bionic manufacturing, supported by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research under grant (01RB0906A)


Publication: 

https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-016-9615-z, https://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bate.201300091


Pending:

A German patent has been granted (DE 102012203869 A1)

Contact: 

Dr. Tobias Ziegler, tobias.ziegler@iwm.fraunhofer.de, +49 761 5142 367

Build-up strategies for additive manufacturing with LMD

© Photo Fraunhofer IPK

Additive manufacturing with LMD allows the production of near net-shaped parts. However any slight irregularity in one layer can add up with time and result in component deviations.

At Fraunhofer IPK we developed build-up strategies that result in a constant build process.

We could prove the transferability of build-up strategies for different materials.

These insights allow for a faster strategies development for more geometries, e.g. the connection area of a worn out gas turbine burner.

Project:

iLaP (BMBF 03WKP51B2), ProFex (FhG LCE)

Publication:

Petrat, T.; Graf, B.; Gumenyuk, A.; Rethmeier, M.: Laser metal deposition as repair technology for a gas turbine burner made of Inconel 718, LANE 2016, Physics Procedia 83, p. 761 - 768.

Torsten Petrat, T.; Graf, B.; Gumenyuk, A.; Rethmeier, M.: Strategies to achieve constant build-up with laser metal deposition, 13th Rapid.Tech Conference Erfurt, Germany, 2016, p. 49 - 60

Contact:

Torsten Petrat, torsten.petrat@ipk.fraunhofer.de

Functionally Integrated Implant – MUGETO ®

© Photo Fraunhofer IWU

This component is a prototype of a hip stem endoprosthesis, which shows the potential of additive manufacturing for medical applications, demonstrating the feasibility to integrate different functions in one part 

Main Features:

The inner cellular structure allows adaption of the implant’s stiffness and density to the patient needs (specific bone properties)

The Macro-porous surface structure can be applied either to selected surface areas or to the implant’s entire surface, enhancing the bone ingrowth (osseointegration)

Internal channels and cavities could provide a variety of integrated functions, e.g.:
- post-operative medical treatment using a drug depot (cavity)
- better implant fixation by inserting bio-resorbable filler material through the channels
- post-surgery endoscopic inspection through the channels

Technical Details:

AM-Technology used: Laser Beam Melting (LBM)

Material: Ti-6Al-4V

Project:

Concept Study / Demonstrator

Publication:

 

Müller, Bernhard; Töppel, Thomas; Rotsch, Christian; Böhm, Andrea; Bräunig, Jan; Neugebauer, Reimund (2012): Functional integration in implants through additive manufacturing technology and smart materials. European Forum on Rapid Prototyping; Rapid Prototyping & Manufacturing. AFPR. Paris (Frankreich), 12.06.2012.

Mueller, Bernhard; Toeppel, Thomas; Gebauer, Mathias; Neugebauer, Reimund (2011): Innovative features in implants through Beam Melting - a new approach for Additive Manufacturing of endoprostheses. In: Paulo Jorge et al Bártolo (Hg.): Innovative developments in Virtual and Physical Prototyping. 5th International Conference on Advanced Research in Virtual and Rapid Prototyping. Leiria, Portugal, 28 September - 1 October, 2011: CRC Press, S. 519–523.

Link:

https://www.iwu.fraunhofer.de/de/forschung/leistungsangebot/kompetenzen-von-a-bis-z/medizintechnik/implantat-mit-inneren-kanaelen-und-hohlraeumen.html

Pending:

DE102010052914B4

Contact:  

Thomas Töppel, thomas.toeppel@iwu.fraunhofer.de, +49 351 4772 2152

Mesoscopic lightweight construction with hexagonal honeycombs

© Photo Fraunhofer IGCV

Design of lattice and honeycomb structures for additive manufacturing under the bionic approach of force-optimized adaptation

Increased competitiveness through constructions based on lightweight construction principles

Mass savings and reduction of energy consumption during operation

Ecological and economical handling of raw materials

High-strength lightweight construction with honeycomb structure due to the highest compressive load on the honeycomb with a minimum core weight

Use in sandwich structures

Add-on for Siemens NX to create free-form surfaces

Project:

Mesoscopic lightweight construction with hexagonal honeycombs

Publication:

F. Riß; Count Grafen; J. Reich; J. Schilp: Stress-tolerant design of sandwich components for additive production. RapidTech. 2014.

Contact:

Dr.-Ing. Christian Seidel, christian.seidel@igcv.fraunhofer.de, +49 821 90678-127

Optimal layout of an artificial vascular system

© Photo Fraunhofer IWM

The supply of biological tissue with nutrients by an artificial vascular system is a current challenge for Tissue Engineering. At the Fraunhofer IWM the optimal layout of an additively manufactured vascular system was investigated.

When assessing different system, the supply of tissue was taken into account as well as the complexity of the system. When comparable in performance, the simple networks with less bifurcations were favored because of robustness and ease of manufacture.

By combining experiments and simulations the enduser was enabled to develop the optimal branching system.

Project: 

BioRap® (FhG), Artivasc3D (EU 7. framework programme, grant agreement n° 263416)

Publication: 

R. Jaeger, J. Courseau, Optimale Auslegung eines künstlichen Adersystems, BioNanoMaterials, (2015), 16(2-3),  p. 81–86

Links: 

www.biorap.de,   www.artivasc.eu

Contact:

Dr. Raimund Jaeger, raimund.jaeger@iwm.fraunhofer.de, +49 761 5142 284

HiperFormTool

© Photo Fraunhofer IWU

As part of the "HiperFormTool“ project, it was investigated how the cycle time during press hardening can be significantly reduced by additively manufactured, active tool components. The thermal behavior of the tools and the forming process were simulated for different conformal cooling geometries.

On the basis of the simulation results and taking advantage of the geometric freedom of Laser Beam Melting, an innovative, contour-aligned cooling system was derived. In addition, a concept for sensor integration was developed and tested within the project.

The developed tempering system allows for a reduction of the holding time in the press hardening process by 70% with the same precision and hardness of the components. The thermocouple integrated into the tool punch allows for accurate documentation of the temperature profile. More than 1,500 components were formed using the tool saving the project partner about 3 hours of production time.

Technical Details:

AM-Technology used: Laser Beam Melting (LBM)

Material: 1.2709 (X3NiCoMoTi18-9-5)

Dimensions (AM functional structure):
  Ø 129 x 43 mm³ (Stempel)
  Ø 132 x 14 mm³ (Niederhalter)
  200 x 200 x 43 mm³ (Matrize)

Project:

Concept Study / Demonstrator

Publication:

„Gute Poren – Erwünschte Porosität in SLM-Werkstücken“; Rapid.Tech 2015, Erfurt (D);   http://www.rtejournal.de/ausgabe12/4241

„SLM Processability of 14 Ni (200 Grade) Maraging Steel“; Fraunhofer Direct Digital   Manufacturing Conference (DDMC), 2016, Berlin (D);   http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0026065716301035

„Porosität durch AM genau steuern”; Technische Rundschau (CH), Ausgabe 05/2016; http://www.technische-rundschau.ch/archiv/2016/5/porosita-t-durch-am-genau-steuern_56165

„Hohe Ziele im Verbund”; BLECH (D), Ausgabe 6/2016

„Hochleistungswerkzeuge für die Blechumformung mittels Laserstrahlschmelzen“; Rapid.Tech –   International Trade Show & Conference for Additive Manufacturing Proceedings of the 14th   rapid.Tech Conference, Erfurt (D); 20 – 22 June 2017

Link:   

www.hiperformtool.eu

Contact:

Mathias Gebauer, mathias.gebauer@iwu.fraunhofer.de, +49 351 4772 2151

Mesoscopic lightweight construction with hexagonal honeycombs

© Photo Fraunhofer IGCV

The layered construction in additive manufacturing allows new degrees of freedom in the construction of components and thereby expands the available solution space.

Therefore, design optimization is faced with new challenges. The application-oriented product development method BioTRIZ has been developed to enable a systematic component construction using TRIZ and bionics.

Through the use of various bionic principles, the application of BioTRIZ in the illustrated example reduced the component mass by 63% without decreasing the required safety requirements.

Project:

Weight optimization of a reamer

Publication:

T. Kamps; C. Münzberg; L. Stacheder; C. Seidel; G. Reinhart; U. Lindemann: TRIZ-based biomimetic part-design for Laser Additive Manufacturing, Lasers in Manufacturing Conference 2015

Contact:

Dr.-Ing. Christian Seidel, christian.seidel@igcv.fraunhofer.de, +49 821 90678-127

Optimal layout for functionally graded materials

© Photo Fraunhofer IWM

An increasing number of additive manufacturing processes allows the user to design locally different material parameters. This may be achieved by using different process parameters or by combining different materials.

But what layout is optimal for a given range of material parameters. How can the service life be increased?

In the course of the Fraunhofer project >>Cerimprint<< the optimal layout for a component with different stiffness under indentation load was sought by finite element analysis.

By choosing an optimal layout the tensile stresses at the surface can be drawn into the component.

This can prevent the formation of cracks and the service life of the component can be vastly increased.

Project:

Cerimprint (FhG)

Publication:

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.commatsci.2014.01.032


Pending: 

DE 102012205064 A1


Contact: 

Dr. Tobias Ziegler, tobias.ziegler@iwm.fraunhofer.de, +49 761 5142 367

Additive Manufacturing of lightweight components

© Photo Fraunhofer IFAM

Project Objectives: Development of the beam melting technologies LBM and EBM for the material Ti-6Al-4V to maturity stage TRL 5+

The work packages of Fraunhofer IFAM comprise the areas of powder, construction and component manufacturing

Important results include:

Development of powder specifications for LBM and EBM

Adaptation of a component for Additive Manufacturing by means of topology optimization with regard to weight and  part integration

Projects:

GenFly

Publications:

A. Kirchner, B. Kloeden, T. Weissgaerber, B. Kieback, A. Schoberth, S. Bagehorn, Mechanical properties of Ti-6Al-4V additively manufactured by electron beam melting, Proceedings EURO PM 2015, ISBN: 978-1-899072-47-7

A. Kirchner, B. Kloeden, T. Weissgaerber, B. Kieback, Powders for Additive Manufacturing, Proceedings WorldPM 2016, ISBN: 978-1-899072-48-4

Contact:

Dr. Alexander Kirchner, alexander.kirchner@ifam-dd.fraunhofer.de

Additive Design Guidelines for the effective application of Additive Manufacturing – Development of an airplane component

A metallic structural component of an aircraft cargo door is optimized with regards to lightweight construction. Design- and process- based guidelines are developed for an effective product development of the Additive Manufacturing of this component.

© Photo Fraunhofer EMI

A metallic structural component of an aircraft cargo door is optimized with regards to lightweight construction.

A number of techniques were used for a robust and resistent design of the component relevant to safety.

Guidelines for the additive design and additive process were developed.

Test specimens were constructed, manufactured, and mechanically inspected for the development of process-specific guidelines.

A design method was developed, which can effectively implement the simulation results and bionic design in a conventional CAD environment

Furthermore, the method allows for the implementation of process-specific guidelines in the conventional CAD environment.

Publication:

Hoschke, K. (2016). Topology and Shape Optimization with hybrid CAD design for Additive Manufacturing. NAFEMS Seminar - Exploring the Design Freedom of Additive Manufacturing (2016), Konferenzbeitrag

Contact:

Klaus Hoschke, klaus.hoschke@emi.fraunhofer.de, +49 761 2714 446

New technological approaches for the development of small satellites

New technological approaches for the development of small satellites

© Photo Fraunhofer EMI

The Fraunhofer EMI, IOSB, and INT are currently developing a 12U Nanosatellite (ERNST – Experimental spacecRaft based on NanoSatellite Technology).

The goal of the ERNST-Mission is to evaluate the utility of a nanosatellite mission for scientific and military purposes.

In order to gain an efficient design concept, parts of the satellite structure were developed as an additive design by performing a multi-disciplinary design optimization (numerical optimization).

The optimized, additive structure serves as a mounting for the optical components (camera, filter systems, objective) of the satellite and also as a thermal regulator of the satellite system through an integrated radiator.

The goal of the optimization is to design the satellite structures with mechanical loads (launch phase of the satellite) and thermal loads (solar radiation in orbit) in mind.

Through the symbioses of numerical optimized designs and Additive Manufacturing, an additional benefit is generated in the development phase.

Function integration, reduced weight, maximized performance, and shorter „Design to Part“ development times are only a few benefits.

Publication:

Horch, C. (2017).  An MWIR payload with FPGA-based data processing for a 12U nanosatellite. 11th IAA Symposium on Small Satellites for Earth Observation

Link:

http://www.emi.fraunhofer.de/content/dam/emi/de/downloads/aktuelles/veranstaltungen/2016_05_Flyer_ILA_Online_High.pdf

Contact:

Marius Bierdel, marius.bierdel@emi.fraunhofer.de, +49 761 2714 440